Specify the concentration ranges of species¶
The first step in setting up CE in ASE is to specify the types of elements
occupying each basis and their concentration ranges using
Concentration
class. For AuCu alloys, we consider the entire
composition range of Au_{x}Cu_{1-x} where
\(0 \leq x \leq 1\). The Concentration
object can be created
simply as
>>> from clease.settings import Concentration
>>> conc = Concentration(basis_elements=[['Au', 'Cu']])
because there is no restriction imposed on the concentration range. Note that
a nested list is passed for the basis_elements
argument because
the consituting elements are specified per basis and FCC (crystal structure of
Au_{x}Cu_sub:1_-_x for all \(0 \leq x \leq 1\)) has only one
basis. The initialization automatically creates a linear algebra representation
of the default concentration range constraints. The equality condition of
and
as well as the lower bound conditions of
and
are created automatically. The conditions represents the linear equations
and
where the concentration list, \(c_\mathrm{species}\), is defined as
The equality condition is then expressed as
which specifies that elements Au and Cu constitute the entire basis (only one basis in this case). The lower bound conditions are expressed as
and
which speicifies that the concentrations of Au and Cu must be greater than or equal to zero.
The AuCu system presented in this tutorial does not impose any concentration constraints. However, we demonstrate how one can impose extra constraints by using an example case where the concentration of interest is Au_{x}Cu_{1_-_x} where \(0 \leq x \leq 0.5\). The extra concentration constraint can be specified in one of three ways.
The first method is to specify the extra constraint using A_eq
, b_eq
,
A_lb
and b_lb
. For this particular case, the extra constraint is
specified using A_lb
and b_lb
arguments as
>>> from clease.settings import Concentration
>>> conc = Concentration(basis_elements=[['Au', 'Cu']], A_lb=[[2, 0]], b_lb=[1])
A list of many examples on how linear systems equations can be used, is found here.
The second method is to specify the concentration range using formula unit
strings. The Concentration
class contains
set_conc_formula_unit()
method which accepts formula
strings and variable range, which can be invoked as
>>> from clease.settings import Concentration
>>> conc = Concentration(basis_elements=[['Au', 'Cu']])
>>> conc.set_conc_formula_unit(formulas=["Au<x>Cu<1-x>"], variable_range={"x": (0, 0.5)})
The last method is to specify the concentration range each constituting species
using set_conc_ranges()
method in Concentration
class. The lower and upper bound of species are specified in a nested list in
the same order as the basis_elements
as
>>> from clease.settings import Concentration
>>> conc = Concentration(basis_elements=[['Au', 'Cu']])
>>> conc.set_conc_ranges(ranges=[[(0, 0.5), (0.5, 1)]])
The above three methods yields the same results where \(x\) is constrained to \(0 \leq x \leq 0.5\).
- class clease.settings.concentration.Concentration(basis_elements=None, grouped_basis=None, A_lb=None, b_lb=None, A_eq=None, b_eq=None)[source]¶
Specify concentration ranges of consituting elements for cluster expansion. Concentration range can be specified in three different ways.
1. specifying the equality and lower bound conditions by specifying
A_lb
,b_lb
,A_eq
andb_eq
during initialization, 2. usingset_conc_formula_unit()
method, and 3. usingset_conc_ranges()
method.Parameters:
- basis_elements: list
List of chemical symbols of elements to occupy each basis. Even for the cases where there is only one basis (e.g., fcc, bcc, sc), a list of symbols should be grouped by basis as in [[‘Cu’, ‘Au’]] (note the nested list form).
- grouped_basis: list (optional, only used when basis are grouped)
Indices of basis_elements that are considered to be equivalent when specifying concentration (e.g., useful when two basis are shared by the same set of elements and no distinctions are made between them). As an example consider a structure with three sublattices A, B and C. If sublattice A and C should be occupied by the same elements and B is occupied by a different set of elements. We can group lattice A and C by passing [(0, 2), (1,)].
- A_lb: list (optional, only used for linear algebra representation)
A two-dimention matrix (or nested list) used to specify the lower bounds of the concentration ranges.
- b_lb: list (optional, only used for linear algebra representation)
A list used tp specify the lower bounds of the concentration ranges.
- A_eq: list (optional, only used for linear algegra representation)
A two-dimention matrix (or nested list) used to specify the equality conditions of the concentration ranges.
- b_eq: list (optional, only used for linear algegra representation)
A list used tp specify the equality condisitons of the concentration ranges.
Example I: Single sublattice
>>> conc = Concentration(basis_elements=[['Au', 'Cu']])
Example II: Two sublattices >>> conc = Concentration(basis_elements=[[‘Au’, ‘Cu’], [‘Au’, ‘Cu’, ‘X’]])
Example III: Three sublattices where the first and third are grouped >>> conc = Concentration(basis_elements=[[‘Au’, ‘Cu’], [‘Au’, ‘Cu’, ‘X’], [‘Au’, ‘Cu’]], … grouped_basis=[(0, 2), (1,)])
- set_conc_formula_unit(formulas=None, variable_range=None)[source]¶
Set concentration based on formula unit strings.
Parameters:
- formulas: list
List constaining formula strings (e.g., [“Li<x>Ru<1>X<2-x>”, “O<3-y>X<y>”], [‘Al<4-4x>Mg<3x>Si<x>’’]) 1. formula string should be provided per basis. 2. formula string can only have integer numbers. 3. only one dvariable is allowed per basis. 4. each variable should have at least one instance of ‘clean’ representation (e.g., <x>, <y>)
- variable_range: dict
Range of each variable used in formulas. key is a string, and the value should be int or float e.g., {“x”: (0, 2), “y”: (0, 0.7)}, {‘x’: (0., 1.)}
- set_conc_ranges(ranges)[source]¶
Set concentration range based on lower and upper bounds of each element.
Parameters:
- ranges: list
Nested list of tuples with the same shape as basis_elements. If basis_elements is [[“Li”, “Ru”, “X”], [“O”, “X”]], ranges coulde be [[(0, 1), (0.2, 0.5), (0, 1)], [(0, 0.8), (0, 0.2)]]